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PRESS RELEASES

29.06.2015

THE MILITARY DOCTRINE OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

 


Translation from Russian

APPROVED
by the President

of the Russian Federation
on December 25, 2014
No. Pr.-2976

THE MILITARY DOCTRINE OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

I. GENERAL PROVISIONS


1. The Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation (hereinafter the Military Doctrine) represents a system of officially adopted by the State views on preparations for armed defense and on the armed defense of the Russian Federation.

2. The Military Doctrine contains the main provisions of the military policy and of military-economic support for defense of the State based on the analysis of military risks and military threats facing the Russian Federation and the interests of its allies.

3. The legal basis of the Military Doctrine consists of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, generally recognized principles and norms of international law and international treaties of the Russian Federation in the field of defense, arms control and disarmament, federal constitutional laws, federal laws, as well as statutory legal acts of the President of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Russian Federation.

4. The Military Doctrine takes into consideration fundamental provisions of the Concept of the Long-Term Socio-Economic Development of the Russian Federation for the Period up to 2020, the National Security Strategy of the Russian Federation for the Period up to 2020, as well as relevant provisions of the Foreign Policy Concept of the Russian Federation, the Maritime Doctrine of the Russian Federation for the Period up to 2020, the Development Strategy of the Arctic Zone of the Russian Federation and of the National Security Protection for the Period up to 2020 and other strategic planning documents.

5. The Military Doctrine reflects the commitment of the Russian Federation to taking military measures for the protection of its national interests and the interests of its allies only after political, diplomatic, legal, economic, informational and other non-violent instruments have been exhausted.

6. The provisions of the Military Doctrine are specified in the addresses of the President of the Russian Federation to the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation and may be adjusted within the framework of strategic planning in the military sphere (military planning).

7. Implementation of the Military Doctrine shall be achieved through the centralization of state governance in the field of defense and security and shall be carried out in accordance with federal legislation and statutory legal acts of the President of the Russian Federation, the Government of the Russian Federation, and federal executive authorities.

8. The following basic terms are used in the Military Doctrine:

a) military security of the Russian Federation (hereinafter military security) is the state of safety of vital interests of the individual, the society, and the State from external and internal military threats related to the use or a threat of the use of military force that is characterized by the absence of a military threat or by the ability to counter such a threat;

b) military risk is a situation in the inter-state or intra-state relations characterized by the totality of factors which can lead to a military threat under certain conditions;

c) military threat is a situation in the inter-state or intra-state relations characterized by a real possibility of an outbreak of a military conflict between opposing sides and by a high degree of readiness of a given state (group of states) or separatist (terrorist) organizations to resort to military force (armed violence);

d) military conflict is a form of resolving inter-state or intra-state contradictions with the use of military force (the term encompasses all types of armed confrontation, including large-scale, regional and local wars and armed conflicts);

e) armed conflict is an armed clash of a limited scale between states (international armed conflict) or between opposing sides in the territory of one state (internal armed conflict);

f) local war is a war pursuing limited military-political objectives when military actions take place within the borders of the warring states and affecting mainly the interests (territorial, economic, political, etc.) of these states;

g) regional war is a war involving several states if the same region waged by national or coalition armed forces in the course of which the sides are pursuing important military-political objectives;

h) large-scale war is a war between coalitions of states or major states of the world community in which the sides are pursuing radical military-political objectives. A large-scale war may result from an escalation of an armed conflict or a local or regional war and involve a significant number of states from different regions of the world. It would require mobilization of all physical resources available and spiritual strength of the participating states;

i) military policy is the activities of the State aimed at organizing and conducting defence and maintaining the security of the Russian Federation as well as the interests of its allies;

j) military organization of the State (hereinafter military organization) is a complex of state administration and military command and control bodies, the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, other troops, military units and bodies (hereinafter the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies) that form its basis and carry out their activities using military methods as well as the country’s defense-industrial complex and whose joint activities are aimed at preparing for armed defense and at conducting armed defense of the Russian Federation;

k) military planning is an identification of the procedure and methods of attaining objectives and fulfilling tasks related to the development of the military organization, to the building and development of the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies, to their employment and providing with comprehensive support;

l) mobilization readiness of the Russian Federation is the ability of the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies, economy of the State, as well as federal state administration bodies of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, local governments and organizations to execute the mobilization plans;

m) system of non-nuclear deterrence is a complex of foreign policy, military and military-technical measures aimed at preventing aggression against the Russian Federation through non-nuclear means.


II. MILITARY RISKS AND MILITARY THREATS

ENCOUNTERED BY THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION


9. World development at the present stage is characterized by the strengthening of global competition, tensions in various areas of inter-state and interregional interaction, rivalry of proclaimed values and models of development, instability of the processes of economic and political development at the global and regional levels against a background of general complication of international relations. There is a stage-by-stage redistribution of influence in favour of new centres of economic growth and political attraction.

10. Many regional conflicts remain unresolved. There is a continuing tendency towards their resolution with the use of force, including in regions bordering the Russian Federation. The existing international security architecture (system) does not ensure equal security for all states.

11. There is a tendency towards shifting the military risks and military threats to the information space and the internal sphere of the Russian Federation. At the same time, despite the fact that unleashing of a large-scale war against the Russian Federation becomes less probable, in a number of areas the military risks encountered by the Russian Federation are increasing.

12. The main external military risks are:

a) build-up of the power potential of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and vesting NATO with global functions carried out in violation of the rules of international law, bringing the military infrastructure of NATO member countries near the borders of the Russian Federation, including by further expansion of the alliance;

b) destabilization of the situation in individual states and regions and undermining of global and regional stability;

c) deployment (build-up) of military contingents of foreign states (groups of states) in the territories of the states contiguous with the Russian Federation and its allies, as well as in adjacent waters, including for exerting political and military pressure on the Russian Federation;

d) establishment and deployment of strategic missile defense systems undermining global stability and violating the established balance of forces related to nuclear missiles, implementation of the global strike concept, intention to place weapons in outer space, as well as deployment of strategic non-nuclear systems of high-precision weapons;

e) territorial claims against the Russian Federation and its allies and interference in their internal affairs;

f) proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, missiles and missile technologies;

g) violation of international agreements by individual states, as well as non-compliance with previously concluded international treaties in the field of arms prohibition, limitation and reduction;

h) use of military force in the territories of states contiguous with the Russian Federation and its allies in violation of the UN Charter and other norms of international law;

i) existence (emergence) of seats of armed conflict and escalation of such conflicts in the territories of the states contiguous with the Russian Federation and its allies;

j) growing threat of global extremism (terrorism) and its new manifestations under the conditions of insufficiently effective international anti-terrorist cooperation, real threat of terrorist acts with use of radioactive and toxic chemical agents, expansion of transnational organized crime, primarily of illicit arms and drugs trafficking;

k) existence (emergence) of seats of inter-ethnic and inter-confessional tensions, activities of radical international armed groupings and international private military companies in areas adjacent to the state border of the Russian Federation and the borders of its allies, as well as territorial contradictions and upsurge in separatism and extremism in some regions of the world;

l) use of information and communication technologies for the military-political purposes to take actions which run counter to international law, being aimed against sovereignty, political independence, territorial integrity of states and posing threat to the international peace, security, global and regional stability;

m) establishment of regimes, which policies threaten the interests of the Russian Federation in the states contiguous with the Russian Federation, including by overthrowing legitimate state administration bodies;

n) subversive operations of special services and organizations of foreign states and their coalitions against the Russian Federation.

13. The main internal military risks are:

a) activities aimed at changing by force the constitutional system of the Russian Federation; destabilizing domestic political and social situation in the country; disrupting the functioning of state administration bodies, important state and military facilities, and information infrastructure of the Russian Federation;

b) activities of terrorist organizations and individuals aimed at undermining the sovereignty and violating the unity and territorial integrity of the Russian Federation;

c) subversive information activities against the population, especially young citizens of the State, aimed at undermining historical, spiritual and patriotic traditions related to the defense of the Motherland;

d) provoking inter-ethnic and social tensions, extremism, stirring up ethnic and religious hatred or enmity.

14. The main military threats are:

a) drastic aggravation of the military-political situation (interstate relations) and creation of conditions for using military force;

b) impeding the operation of systems of state governance and military command and control of the Russian Federation, disruption the functioning of its strategic nuclear forces, missile warning systems, systems of outer space monitoring, nuclear munitions storage facilities, nuclear energy facilities, nuclear, chemical, pharmaceutical and medical industry facilities and other potentially dangerous facilities;

c) creation and training of illegal armed formations and their activities in the territory of the Russian Federation or in the territories of its allies;

d) demonstration of military force in the course of exercises in the territories of states contiguous with the Russian Federation or its allies;

e) intensification of activities of the armed forces of individual states (groups of states) involving partial or full mobilization and shifting the governance and military command and control bodies of these states to functioning as in wartime conditions.

15. Characteristic features and specifics of current military conflicts are:

a) integrated employment of military force and political, economic, informational or other non-military measures implemented with a wide use of the protest potential of the population and of special operations forces;

b) massive use of weapons and military equipment systems, high-precision and hypersonic weapons, means of electronic warfare, weapons based on new physical principles that are comparable to nuclear weapons in terms of effectiveness, information and control systems, as well as drones and autonomous marine vehicles, guided robotic weapons and military equipment;

c) exerting simultaneous pressure on the enemy throughout the enemy’s territory in the global information space, airspace and outer space, on land and sea;

d) a selective approach and inflicting large-scale damage on facilities, speedy troops (forces) and fire maneuver, employment of different mobile groupings of troops (forces);

e) reduction of the time periods required for preparing to conduct military operations;

f) enhanced centralization and computerization of command and control of troops and weapons as a result of transition from a strictly vertical system of command and control to global networked computerized systems of command and control of troops (forces) and weapons;

g) establishment of a permanent zone of military operations in the territories of conflicting sides;

h) participation in military operations of irregular military formations and private military companies;

i) use of indirect and asymmetric methods of operations;

j) employment of political forces and public associations financed and guided from abroad.

16. Nuclear weapons will remain an important factor of preventing an outbreak of nuclear military conflicts involving the use of conventional arms (large-scale war or regional war).


III. MILITARY POLICY OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION


17. Main tasks of the Russian Federation’s military policy are determined by the President of the Russian Federation in accordance with the federal legislation, the National Security Strategy of the Russian Federation for the Period up to 2020 and the Military Doctrine.

18. The Russian Federation’s military policy is aimed at deterring and preventing military conflicts, improving military organization and forms and methods of employment of the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies, and enhancing mobilization readiness in order to ensure defense and security of the Russian Federation, as well as interests of its allies.


Russian Federation’s activities

to deter and prevent military conflicts


19. The Russian Federation shall ensure the permanent readiness of the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies for deterring and preventing military conflicts and for armed defense of the Russian Federation and its allies in accordance with the norms of international law and international treaties of the Russian Federation.

20. Prevention of a nuclear military conflict as well as of any other military conflict is the basis of the military policy of the Russian Federation.

21. Main tasks of the Russian Federation with regard to deterring and preventing military conflicts are:

a) to assess and forecast the development of the military and political situation at global and regional levels, as well as the state of interstate relations in the military-political field with the use of modern technical means and information technologies;

b) to neutralize potential military risks and military threats through political, diplomatic and other non-military means;

c) to maintain global and regional stability and the nuclear deterrence potential at a sufficient level;

d) to maintain the predetermined level of combat readiness of the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies;

e) to maintain the mobilization readiness of the Russian’s economy, public authorities, local governments and organizations in the relevant areas of competence at a level required to ensure their operation in wartime;

f) to unite efforts of the State, society and individuals in defending the Russian Federation; to develop and implement measures, aimed at strengthening the effectiveness of military patriotic education of Russian citizens and their preparation for military service;

g) to work to increase the number of partner states and to promote cooperation with them on the basis of common interests in the area of international security in accordance with the provisions of the UN Charter, generally recognized norms and rules of international law, as well as international treaties of the Russian Federation, and to expend cooperation with BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa);

h) to strengthen the system of collective security in the framework of the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and to build up its potential; to intensify cooperation in the area of international security in the framework of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO); to cooperate with The Republic of Abkhazia and the Republic of South Ossetia to ensure common defence and security; to maintain equitable dialogue on European security issues with the European Union and NATO; to promote creation of a new security model based on collective non-bloc principles in the Asia Pacific region;

i) to observe international treaties of the Russian Federation in the area of nuclear-missile arms limitation and reduction;

j) to conclude and implement agreements in the area of conventional arms control, as well as to implement confidence-building measures;

k) to create mechanisms of mutually beneficial bilateral and multilateral cooperation in countering potential missile threats, including if necessary, the creation of joint missile defence systems with Russian participation on a nuclear equal basis;

l) to resist attempts by some states or group of states to achieve military superiority through the deployment of strategic missile defence systems, the placement of weapons in outer space or the deployment of strategic non-nuclear high-precision weapon systems;

m) to promote the conclusion of an international treaty on prevention of placement of any types of weapons in outer space;

n) to adopt in the UN framework regulatory provisions to govern the secure conduct of outer space activities, including safety of outer space operations in the general technical sense;

o) to strengthen the Russian Federation’s potential in the area of monitoring objects and events in the near-Earth outer space, including the international cooperation mechanism in that area;

p) to participate in international peacekeeping activities, including under the auspices of the United Nations and in the framework of cooperation with international (regional) organizations;

q) to develop and adopt an international mechanism to monitor compliance with the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction;

r) to participate in combating international terrorism;

s) to create conditions to reduce the risk of using information and communications technologies for the military-political purposes to undertake actions running counter to international law, directed against sovereignty, political independence or territorial integrity of states or threatening international peace and security, and global and regional stability.


Employment of the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies,

and their main tasks in peacetime under the conditions

of an imminent threat of aggression and in wartime


22. The Russian Federation has the legitimate right to employ the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies to repel aggression against itself and/or its allies, to maintain (restore) peace as decided by the UN Security Council or another collective security body, as well as to protect its citizens abroad in accordance with generally recognized principles and norms of international law and international treaties of the Russian Federation.

23. In peacetime, the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies shall be employed by the decision of the President of the Russian Federation in accordance with the procedure prescribed by the federal legislation. Subject to the above, they shall be employed vigorously, purposefully and in an integrated manner on the basis of a timely and constant assessment of the military, political and strategic situation.

24. The Russian Federation shall regard an armed attack against a member state of the Union State [of Russia and Belarus] or any actions involving the use of military force against that state as an act of aggression against the Union State and shall take retaliatory measures.

25. The Russian Federation shall regard an armed attack against a CSTO member state as an aggression against all CSTO member states and shall take measures in accordance with the Collective Security Treaty.

26. Within the framework of strategic deterrence measures of a forceful nature the use of high-precision weapons is envisaged by the Russian Federation.

27. The Russian Federation shall reserve the right to use nuclear weapons in response to the use of nuclear and other types of weapons of mass destruction against it and/or its allies, as well as in the event of aggression against the Russian Federation with the use of conventional weapons when the very existence of the state is in jeopardy.

The decision to use nuclear weapons shall be taken by the President of the Russian Federation.

28. The activities to fulfill tasks assigned to the Aimed Forces, other troops and bodies shall be organized and carried out in accordance with the Defense Plan of the Russian Federation, decrees of the President of the Russian Federation, orders and directives of the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, as well as other statutory acts of the Russian Federation and strategic defense planning documents.

29. The Russian Federation shall provide military contingents for the CSTO peacekeeping forces to participate in peacekeeping operations as decided upon by the CSTO Collective Security Council. The Russian Federation shall also provide military contingents for the CSTO Collective Rapid Reaction Forces and the Collective Rapid Deployment Forces of the Central Asia Collective Security Region to promptly respond to military threats to CSTO member states and accomplish other tasks assigned by the CSTO Collective Security Council.

30. The Russian Federation shall provide military contingents for peacekeeping operations mandated by the UN or the CIS in accordance with the procedure established by the federal legislation and international treaties of the Russian Federation.

31. The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation may be employed outside the country to protect the interests of the Russian Federation and its citizens and to maintain international peace and security in accordance with the generally recognized principles and norms of international law, international treaties of the Russian Federation and the federal legislation.

32. The main tasks of the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies in peacetime are:

a) to protect sovereignty, territorial integrity of the Russian Federation and inviolability of its territory;

b) to ensure strategic (nuclear and non-nuclear) deterrence, including the prevention of military conflicts;

c) to maintain the composition, state of combat and mobilization readiness and training of the strategic nuclear forces and their support forces and facilities, as well as command and control systems at a level which guarantees the infliction of an unacceptable damage on an aggressor in whatever situation;

d) to ensure timely warning of the supreme commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation of an air or space attack as well as notification of public and military authorities and troops (forces) of military risks and military threats;

e) to maintain the capability of the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies to timely deploy groupings of troops (forces) along critical strategic axes, as well as to ensure their combat readiness;

f) to ensure the aerospace defence of the Russian Federation's critical facilities as well as readiness to counter air and space attacks;

g) to deploy and maintain in the strategic space area orbital groupings of space vehicles to support the activities of the Armed Forces;

h) to protect and defend important state and military facilities, facilities on communication lines and special cargoes;

i) to build new military infrastructure facilities of the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies, and to modernize and develop the existing ones as well as to select dual-purpose infrastructure facilities to be used for defence purposes;

j) to protect citizens of the Russian Federation abroad from armed attack on them;

k) to participate in peacekeeping operations to maintain (restore) international peace and security, to take measures to avert (eliminate) threats to peace, and to suppress acts of aggression (violation of peace) on the basis of decisions of the UN Security Council or other bodies authorized to adopt such decisions in accordance with international law;

l) to combat piracy and ensure safety of navigation;

m) to ensure security of economic activities of the Russian Federation in high seas;

n) to combat terrorism in the territory of the Russian Federation and suppress international terrorist activities outside the Russian Federation;

o) to prepare for carrying out territorial defense and civil defense measures;

p) to participate in law enforcement activities and in ensuring public security;

q) to participate in the emergency management and to ensure the post-emergency restoration of special-purpose facilities;

r) to participate in the enforcement of state-of-emergency regime;

s) to protect national interests of the Russian Federation in the Arctic region.

33. The main tasks of the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies under the conditions of an imminent threat of aggression are:

a) to implement a set of additional measures aimed at reducing the threat of aggression and to increase the level of combat and mobilization readiness of the Armed Forces aimed at strategic deployment;

b) to maintain the nuclear deterrence potential at the required level of readiness;

c) to carry out the strategic deployment of the Armed Forces;

d) to participate in activities to enforce a martial law regime;

e) to carry out territorial defense activities, as well as to implement, in accordance with the established procedure, civil defense measures;

f) to fulfill international obligations of the Russian Federation with regard to collective defense, to repel or prevent, in accordance with the rules of international law, an armed attack against another state that has made a relevant request to the Russian Federation.

34. The main tasks of the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies in wartime shall include repelling aggression against the Russian Federation and its allies, defeating the aggressor’s troops (forces) and forcing the aggressor to cease hostilities on terms and conditions suiting the interests of the Russian Federation and its allies.


Development of military organization


35. The main tasks related to the development of the military organization are:

a) to bring the structure, composition and strength of the components of the military organization in line with their tasks in peacetime, under the conditions of an imminent threat of aggression and in wartime, taking into account the allocation of sufficient financial, physical and other resources for these purposes. The planned amount of such resources and timetable of their allocation shall be specified in planning documents on the long-term socio-economic development of the Russian Federation;

b) to provide for a more effective and secure functioning of public administration and military governance system and to ensure communication between federal government agencies, bodies of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation and other government authorities in addressing defense and security tasks;

c) to improve the aerospace defense system of the Russian Federation;

d) to improve the system of military and economic support for the military organization on the basis of efficient use of financial, physical and other resources;

e) to improve military planning;

f) to improve territorial defense and civil defense of the Russian Federation;

g) to improve arrangements related to the creation of mobilization reserves, including stocks of weapons, military and specialized equipment, as well as material and technical assets;

h) to strengthen the system of operation and maintenance of military hardware and specialized equipment;

i) to create integrated logistical, social, medical and scientific support structures in the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies, as well as military education and training institutions;

j) to improve the system of information security of the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies;

k) to raise the prestige of military service and to prepare citizens of the Russian Federation for such service in a comprehensive manner;

l) to support military-political and military-technical cooperation of the Russian Federation with foreign states;

m) to develop the mobilization base and to ensure the mobilization deployment of the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies, as well as to improve methods of recruiting and training of mobilization manpower reserves and mobilization manpower resources;

n) to improve the system of radiation, chemical and biological protection of troops (forces) and population.

36. The main priorities related to the development of the military organization are:

a) to improve the system of management of the military organization and to increase the effectiveness of its functioning;

b) to ensure that units, troops and formations of constant readiness are adequately manned, equipped, supported and trained at the required level;

c) to improve the quality of military training and military education, and to strengthen the military-related scientific potential.


Organizational building and development

of the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies


37. The main task of the organizational building and development of the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies is to ensure that their structure, composition, strength, arms and equipment with up-to-date (prospective) types of weapons and military and special vehicles correspond to potential military threats, the substance and nature of military conflicts, their tasks in peacetime, under the conditions of an imminent threat of aggression and in wartime, as well as to political, socio-economic, military-technical and demographic conditions and capabilities of the Russian Federation.

38. As regards the organizational building and development of the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies, the Russian Federation proceeds from the necessity:

a) to improve the composition and structure of the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies, and to streamline their assigned strength;

b) to ensure a sound ratio of constant-readiness troops and formations to troops and formations intended for the mobilization deployment of the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies;

c) to improve the quality of operational, combat, special and mobilization training;

d) to strengthen cooperation among the units and formations of the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies, and the federal authorities, authorities of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, local governments and organizations involved in defense activities;

e) to ensure the provision of modem armaments and military and specialized equipment (materiel) and their mastering by personnel;

f) to ensure integration and coordinated development of technical, logistical and other types of support systems of the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies;

g) to improve system of military training and education, manpower development and military science;

h) to train highly professional servicemen devoted to their Homeland and to raise prestige of the military service.

39. The main objectives of the organizational building and development of the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies shall be achieved through:

a) formulation and consistent implementation of the military policy;

b) provision of effective military-economic support for and sufficient funding of the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies;

c) raising the functioning efficiency of the defense-industrial complex;

d) ensuring the reliable functioning of the command and control system of the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies in peacetime, under the conditions of an imminent threat of aggression and in wartime;

e) maintaining the capability of the national economy to meet the needs of the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies;

f) maintaining the mobilization potential at a level required to ensure the mobilization and strategic deployment of the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies;

g) developing civil defense forces of constant readiness capable of fulfilling their tasks in peacetime, under the conditions of an imminent threat of aggression and in wartime;

h) formation of territorial troops to provide protection and defense of military, state and special facilities, critical infrastructure, including transport, communications and energy, as well as potentially hazardous sites;

i) improvement of the deployment (stationing) pattern of the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies, including outside the territory of the Russian Federation, in accordance with the international treaties of the Russian Federation and the federal legislation;

j) creation of echeloned military infrastructure along strategic and tactical axes;

k) timely creation of mobilization stocks;

l) ensuring effective information security of the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies;

m) structural improvement of the system of military higher education institutions and of federal higher education institutions offering military training, and providing them with up-to-date training facilities;

n) improvement of social welfare of active and retired servicemen and their families, as well as of civilian personnel of the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies;

o) implementation of social guarantees established by the federal legislation for active and retired servicemen and their families, and improvement of their life quality;

p) improvement of the system of staffing with personnel under contract or under the draft with an emphasis on appointing enlisted servicemen under contract as private soldiers and sergeants ensuring combat readiness of the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies;

q) strengthening the law and order and military discipline, as well as prevention and suppression of corruption;

r) improving youth pre-draft training and military-patriotic education of citizens;

s) ensuring administrative and civilian control of the defense-related activities of federal executive bodies and the executive bodies of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation.


Mobilization preparation and mobilization readiness

of the Russian Federation


40. Mobilization readiness of the Russian Federation shall be ensured through preparing for implementation of mobilization plans within established time limits.

The pre-determined level of mobilization readiness of the Russian Federation depends on an estimated military threat and the nature of a military conflict and shall be achieved through adequate activities for mobilization preparation, as well as equipping the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies with modern weapons and maintaining military-technical potential at a sufficient level.

41. The main task of mobilization preparation is to prepare the economy of the Russian Federation, economies of its constituent entities and municipalities and its state administration bodies, local government authorities and organizations, as well as to prepare its Armed Forces, other troops and bodies for the defense of the State against an armed attack and meeting the requirements of the State and the needs of the population in wartime.

42. The main tasks of mobilization preparation are:

a) to ensure sustainable governance in wartime;

b) to develop a legal framework regulating economic and other measures in the period of mobilization, during a state of martial law and in wartime taking into account the specific aspects of the functioning of financial, credit, tax and monetary systems during these periods;

c) to meet the requirements of the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies as well as the needs of the population in wartime;

d) to create ad hoc formations to be assigned to the Armed Forces or to be used for the purposes of the economy of the Russian Federation when mobilization is declared;

e) to maintain the industrial potential of the Russian Federation at a level sufficient to meet the requirements of the State and the needs of the population in wartime;

f) to provide the Armed Forces, others troops and bodies as well as economic sectors with additional human and logistical resources to address wartime tasks;

g) to organize reconstruction works at sites that were damaged or destroyed as a result of military operations including restoration of productive facilities designed to manufacture weapons, military and special equipment, as well as coverage on transportation lines;

h) to organize supplies of food and non-food commodities to the population under conditions of limited resources in wartime.


Military-economic support for the defense


43. The main task of the military-economic support for the defense is to create conditions for sustainable development and maintenance of the State’s military-economic and military-technical potential at the level necessary for the implementation of military policy and for meeting reliably the needs of the military organization in peacetime, in the face of an imminent threat of aggression and in wartime.

44. The tasks of military-economic support for the defense are:

a) to equip the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies with weapons and military and special equipment on the basis of the development of the military-scientific potential of the country, concentration of its financial, material and technical resources, as well as greater efficiency of their use in order to achieve the level sufficient to accomplish tasks assigned to the military organization;

b) to provide timely and full resource support for the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies with materiel needed for the implementation of their plans (programmes) for building and employment and for operational, combat, special and mobilization training of troops (forces);

c) to develop the defense-industrial complex by coordinating military-economic activities of the State aimed at ensuring defense, integration of the civilian and military sectors of the economy in specific spheres of production and legal protection of the results of military, special and dual-purpose intellectual activities;

d) to advance military-political and military-technical cooperation with foreign states for consolidation of confidence-building measures and reducing global and regional military tensions.


Equipping the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies

with weapons and military and special equipment


45. The main task of equipping the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies with weapons and military and special equipment is to develop and maintain an interconnected and integrated system of weapons in a state corresponding to the tasks and purpose of the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies, to the forms and methods of their use, and to the economic and mobilization potential of the Russian Federation.

46. The tasks of equipping the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies with weapons and military and special equipment are:

a) to equip (re-equip) the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies in an integrated manner with up-to-date types and systems of weapons and military and special equipment, and to maintain them in a state ensuring their combat use;

b) to develop multifunctional (multipurpose) systems of weapons and military and special equipment using standardized components;

c) to enhance capacity and means of information warfare;

d) to improve the quality of the means of information exchange on the basis of up-to-date technologies and international standards, as well as a single information field of the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies as part of the Russian Federation’s information space;

e) to ensure the functional and organizational-technical unity of weapon systems of the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies;

f) to develop new types of high-precision weapons and means of counteracting them, aerospace defense assets, communication systems, reconnaissance and command systems, radio jamming systems, complexes of unmanned aerial vehicles, robotic strike complexes, modern transport aviation and individual protection systems for military personnel;

g) to create basic information management systems and integrate them with the systems of command and control of weapons and the computerized systems of command and control bodies at the strategic, operational-strategic, operational, operational-tactical and tactical levels.

47. The implementation of the tasks of equipping the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies with weapons and military and special equipment is provided for by the State Arms Programme and other national programmes (plans).


Provision of materiel for the Armed Forces,

other troops and bodies


48. The provision of the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies with materiel and their stockpiling and maintenance shall be carried out within the framework of integrated and coordinated systems of technical and logistical support.

49. The main task of the provision of the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies with materiel in peacetime shall be stockpiling, echeloned placing, and maintenance of reserves of materiel supporting the mobilization and strategic deployment of the Armed Forces and the conduct of military operations (based on the time periods necessary for adapting the economy, its individual sectors, and industrial organizations to wartime conditions) in the light of physical and geographical conditions along the strategic axes and capacities of the transportation system.

50. The main task of the provision of the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies with materiel in a period of a direct threat of aggression shall consist in the additional provision of the troops (forces) with materiel according to wartime manning levels and norms.

51. The main tasks of the provision of the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies with materiel in wartime are:

a) to supply materiel taking into account the task assigned to a grouping of troops (forces), the procedure and schedule for its formation, and the expected duration of military operations;

b) to replenish losses of armaments, military and special equipment, and materiel in the course of military operations with due account of the capacity of industrial organizations to deliver and repair weapons and military and special equipment.


Development of the defense-industrial complex


52. The main task of the development of the defense industry is to ensure its effective functioning as a high-tech multi-profile sector of the national economy capable of meeting the needs of the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies in up-to-date weapons and military and special equipment, and the strategic presence of the Russian Federation in world markets for high-tech products and services.

53. The tasks of the development of the defense-industrial complex are:

a) to enhance the defense-industrial complex through creating and developing major research and production structures;

b) to improve the system of interstate cooperation in the development, production, and maintenance of weapons and military equipment;

c) to ensure the technological independence of the Russian Federation in the production of strategic and other types of weapons and military and special equipment in accordance with the State Arms Programme;

d) to improve the system of the guaranteed provision of materials and raw materials for the production and operation of weapons and military and special equipment through all stages of their life cycle, including in particular nationally produced related items and components;

e) to establish a complex of priority technologies ensuring the development and creation of prospective systems and models of weapons and military and special equipment;

f) to maintain the state control over strategically important organizations in the defense-industrial complex;

g) to step up innovation and investment activities making it possible to carry out a qualitative updating of the scientific, technical, production and technological base;

h) to develop, support and introduce military and civilian basic and critical technologies ensuring the development, production and maintenance of weapons and military and special equipment that are currently in service and prospective models of weapons and military and special equipment, as well as ensuring technological breakthrough or a forward-looking scientific and technological groundwork with a purpose of development of fundamentally new models of weapons and military and special equipment possessing previously unattainable performance capabilities;

i) to improve the system of targeted programme planning of the development of the defense-industrial complex with a view to increasing the effectiveness of equipping the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies with weapons and military and special equipment and ensuring the mobilization readiness of the defense-industrial complex;

j) to develop and produce prospective systems and models of weapons and military and special equipment and improve the quality and competitiveness of military products, to develop a management system for the full life cycle of weapons and military and special equipment;

k) to improve the mechanism for placing orders for the supplies of products, conducting of work and provision of services for federal needs;

l) to carry out measures stipulated by the federal legislation and aimed at providing economic incentives for entities implementing the State defense procurement programme;

m) to improve the performance of defense-industrial complex entities by introducing organizational and economic mechanisms ensuring their efficient functioning and development;

n) to improve the defense-industrial complex staffing structure, to strengthen its intellectual potential and to ensure social security of those working in the defense-industrial complex;

o) to ensure the production and technological mobilization readiness of defense-industrial complex entities for developing and producing priority types of weapons and military and special equipment in designated quantities and of due quality.


Military-political and military-technical cooperation

of the Russian Federation with foreign states


54. The Russian Federation carries out military-political and military technical cooperation with foreign states (hereinafter military-political and military-technical cooperation) and with international, including regional, organizations on the basis of its foreign policy and economic expediency and in accordance with the federal legislation and international treaties of the Russian Federation.

55. The tasks of the military-political cooperation of the Russian Federation are:

a) to strengthen international security and strategic stability at global and regional levels on the basis of the rule of international law, and first of all the UN Charter provisions;

b) to establish and develop allied relations with the member states of the CSTO and the member states of the CIS, with the Republic of Abkhazia and the Republic of South Ossetia, as well as relations of friendship and partnership with other states;

c) to develop the negotiation process aimed at creating regional security systems with the participation of the Russian Federation;

d) to develop relations with international organizations for the prevention of conflict situations and maintenance and strengthening of peace in various regions, including with the participation of Russian military contingents in peacekeeping operations;

e) to maintain equitable relations with interested states and international organizations to counter the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery;

f) to develop a dialogue with interested states on national approaches to confronting military risks and military threats brought about by the extensive use of information and communications technologies for military and political purposes;

g) to fulfill international obligations of the Russian Federation.

56. The main priorities of military-political cooperation shall include:

a) with the Republic of Belarus:

coordinating the activities in the sphere of development of the national Armed Forces and the use of the military infrastructure;

elaborating and harmonizing measures to maintain the defense capability of the Union State [of Russia and Belarus] in accordance with the Military Doctrine of the Union State;

b) with the Republic of Abkhazia and the Republic of South Ossetia – ensuring common defense and security;

c) with the CSTO member states – consolidating efforts to improve the capabilities of the CSTO collective security system for ensuring collective security and common defense;

d) with the CIS member states – ensuring regional and international security and carrying out peacekeeping operations;

e) with the SCO states – coordinating efforts to confront new military risks and military threats within common space, as well as establishing a necessary legal and regulatory framework;

f) with the United Nations and other international, including regional, organizations – involving representatives of the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies in the management of peacekeeping operations and in the process of planning and carrying out preparatory activities for operations aimed at maintaining (restoring) peace, as well as in participating in the elaboration, coordination, and implementation of international agreements on arms control and strengthening international security and increasing the participation of units and servicemen of the Armed Forces, other troops and bodies in operations aimed at maintaining (restoring) peace.

57. The tasks of military-technical cooperation are defined by the President of the Russian Federation in accordance with the federal legislation.

58. The key areas of military-technical cooperation are formulated in the Annual Presidential Address to the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation.


* * *


The provisions of the Military Doctrine may be updated due to changes in the nature of military risks and military threats, the tasks in the sphere of military security and defense, as well as the conditions of development of the Russian Federation.




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